Introduction To Web: How internet works
Web Development Write-ups

Introduction to Web: How does the Internet Work?

We’ve covered a little about Web development so far. But all we’ve discussed was a little bit high level for those who don’t know much about the internet. In our web development series, you must be surprised and maybe a little bit worried about seeing this title. So first lemme clear that you don’t need to worry that much. In this article, I am just going to give a basic overview of how the internet works. Actually, we’ll see how the Web works. Because there is a slight difference in the Web and the internet. So here we begin:

Read this if you want to keep spambots away from your website.

In this article, I’ll be focusing only on these points.

  • How to internet Works
  • Difference between WEB and the Internet

How does the Internet Work?

When a user enters a website in a browser. He is requesting the website server to send him a copy of that webpage. Now, this request is wrapped in a packet with specific information about the request made by the user. This information includes the website’s IP address.

What is the IP address?

IP stands for Internet Protocol. It is a numerical label assigned to a device, a computer, a website or anything connected to the internet.

Here when the user enters the website address and sends the request. He’s actually asking for that website. This request is called an HTTP request.

What is the HTTP request?

HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. An HTTP request is a packet of information sent by a computer to another computer or server to communicate with it.

How internet works
How the internet works

This packet travels through various sources and reaches the internet hub. The internet hub locates the server for which the request was made. And it sends that data packet to the server. The server receives the request and prepares to send the webpage to the user who requested it. But there is a problem. The webpage contains different data, like media, images, texts, etc. That’s why all this stuff can’t be sent in a single data packet. So the server splits the data into lots of small data packets. These data packets travel through different ways and reach the users’ computer. Here they combine and the user sees the webpage. And all this takes place in less than a second.

Introduction to Web Development.

Now let’s have a technical overview. Well, this is not that necessary but it’s better to know it. The question is how our request finds the right path and reaches the exact server and returns with a response.

Finding the Right address:

When we enter a query or let’s say a website address. It goes to the ISP. The ISP stands for the Internet service provider. No need to define this obviously. Here inside your ISP, the DNS identifies the domain name and changes it to the IP address. This is the website IP address. Every website has its own IP address. Here lemme define DNS and Domain for your ease:

What is the Domain name?

The IP address is difficult to remember. Like if you’ve to remember the IP of our website. It’d be difficult for you. But what about some understandable names? Like Sprotechs.com, Google.com, etc. These names are called Domain names.

What is DNS?

DNS stands for Domain Naming System. As it explains itself from the name. It is a naming system used to allot domain names to different websites and makes sure that two different websites don’t have the same domain name.

So our request reaches the website’s IP through HTTP and then it responds. Our request finds the shortest path to reach the website. And this is not a direct way. Like in case if you want to visit tools.sprotechs.com. It’ll first reach the sprotechs server and then look for the existence of tools subdomain. Similar goes for pages and categories. Our web server figures out whether that page or domain exist. If yes it redirects the request to that specific webpage.

So that’s it. This was the process of how we see websites. Now, what goes on the website to respond to our request? We’ll discuss it in next writeup about the front end and back end.

Difference between Internet and WEB:

The internet is a global network which connects computers, devices, IoT, servers, and every other thing in a network. It is the main infrastructure. While the WEB or WWW (World Wide Web) is the collection of information that is accessible via the Internet. WEB is only a service on the Internet. In the above process, we discussed how the internet works and we also noticed how WEB provides information via the internet.

Shehriar Ahmad
Shehriar Ahmad Awan is the Co-founder of Sprotechs InfoSec. He's a Cybersecurity researcher, Penetration tester and Developer for Sprotechs team.
https://sprotechs.com